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Indian-Pakistani Dispute and Intrastate Insurgency in Kashmir

Years: 1984-2015
Battle deaths: 18,696 [1]
Onesided violence: 3,443 [2]

Nation(s) involved and/or conflict territory [note]
India, Pakistan

Published prior to 2013 | Altered: 2017-06-03 08:51:22
This entry includes two conflict dyads that's been active since the middle of the 1980-ies:

a) the dispute between the governments of India and Pakistan over the territory of Kashmir, which is a low intensity conflict along the ”Line of Control” of 1972 that separates Kashmir into two parts controlled by India and Pakistan respectively.

b) the ”Kashmir insurgency” which is a civil war with alleged foreign involvement between a number of armed insurgent groups and the Government of India.

The Kashmir insurgency

A disputed State election in Indian-administrated Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir) in 1987 led to a power vacuum and to some of the state's legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups. A series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian Government in July 1988 started the Kashmir Insurgency. The insurgency escalated in January 1990 when armed groups forced tens of thousands of Hindu residents (pandits) to flee the Vale of Kashmir, killed hundreds of civilians and destroyed property in what has been described as an attempt of ethnic cleansing.

These events prompted the Indian Government to increase its military presence in the region and begin a crackdown on the insurgents. The Indian Army has been accused of widespread human rights abuses in that campaign.

Numerous insurgent groups have been active in Jammu and Kashmir over the years. Some of these are: Lashkar-e-Taiba, Al-Badr and Jaish-e-Muhammed. While some groups may aim primarily for the seccession of Kashmir from India, or greater local autonomy, others have broader goals aligning them with international jihadist movements. Several groups has carried out terror attacks outside of Kashmir. Lashkar-e-Taiba was connected to the Mumbai attacks of 2008.

The insurgency, Indian-Pakistani relations and the Kargil War of 1999

The conflict has been closely tied to Indian-Pakistani relations. India has repeatedly accused Pakistan of fuelling the insurgency in an effort to annex Kashmir to Pakistan, while Pakistan denies such accusations. The insurgency has led to heightened tension between India and Pakistan along the Line of Control. Between May and July 1999 these tensions escalated into war in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC) after an intrusion from the Pakistani side of forces into the Indian-administered part of Kashmir. The 1999 war is often referred to as the Kargil War. In India, the conflict is also called Operation Vijay.

The number of insurgent attacks continued to be high until around 2004 whereafter the conflict has been less intensive.

Sources:
Source: Wikipedia, published under the GNU FDL. Retrieved 2016-07-22

Source: Uppsala Conflict Data Program (Date of retrieval: 2014) UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia, Uppsala University

SOURCES: FATALITY DATA

Data Sources

[1] Battle deaths: PRIO Battle Deaths Dataset v3.0 (link) (1946-88) UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset v. 5-2016 (link) (1989-2015) #169 #20
Low: 18,420 High: 25,837

[2] UCDP One-sided Violence Dataset v. 1.4-2015 (1989-2014) (link) including actors: Government of India, Kashmir insurgents, Lashkar-e-Taiba
Low: 3,287 High: 5,656

More about sources

NOTE ON NATION DATA

NOTE! Nation data for this war may be inconlusive or incomplete. In most cases it reflects which nations were involved with troops in this war, but in some it may instead reflect the contested territory.

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