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Ituri Conflict

Years: 1999-2004
Non-state conflict, battle-deaths: 5,826 [3]
Onesided violence: 6,668 [2]

Nation(s) involved and/or conflict territory [note]
Democratic Republic of the Congo

This conflict is coded as a non-state conflict.
Published: 2014-08-17 22:38:29 | Updated: 2024-04-01 09:51:13

This conflict includes non-state violence with the intensity of war (1999 and 2002) and one-sided violence.


The Ituri conflict was a major conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While the two groups had fought in armed clashes at least as early as 1972, the most recent conflict ran from 1999 to 2003, and a low-level armed conflict continued until 2007.

The conflict was complicated by the presence of various armed groups (many of which had participated in the Second Congo War), the large amount of small arms in the region, the area's abundant natural resources and wealth, and the existing ethnic tensions throughout the region. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) while the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) claimed to be fighting for the Hema.

The conflict was extremely violent and included large-scale massacres performed by members of both ethnic groups. In 2006, the BBC reported that an estimated 60,000 people had died in Ituri since 1998 and hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes. In June 2003, the European Union undertook Operation Artemis and sent a French-led peacekeeping force to Ituri. The EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia; however, massacres continued in the countryside. In December 2003, the Hema-backed UPC organization split and fighting decreased significantly.

Source: Wikipedia, published under the GNU FDL. Retrieved 2014-08-17


[2] UCDP One-sided Violence Dataset v. 1.4-2015 (1989-2014) (link) including actors: FAPC, FNI, UPC, FRPI, RCD-K-ML
Low: 5,979 High: 9,983

[3] UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset v. 2.5-2015, 1989-2014 (link) including dyads: Alur vs Lendu, RCD-K-ML vs RCD-N, RCD-K-ML vs MLC, RCD-N, FNI vs PUSIC, FNI vs UPC, FNI, FRPI vs UPC, RCD-K-ML vs UPC, FAPC vs FNI, Hema vs Lendu
Low: 5,727 High: 12,330

More about sources


NOTE! Nation data for this war may be inconlusive or incomplete. In most cases it reflects which nations were involved with troops in this war, but in some it may instead reflect the contested territory.



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