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Senegal Civil War

Also called: Casamance conflict

Years: 1990-2011
Battle deaths: 1,373 [1]
Onesided violence: 284 [2]

Nation(s) involved and/or conflict territory [note]
Senegal

Published prior to 2013 | Altered: 2014-08-11 19:21:19
From Wikipedia: The Casamance Conflict is a low level civil war which has been waged between the Government of Senegal and the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC) since 1990 over the question of independence for the Casamance region.

The region is mostly inhabited by Dioula people with a long tradition of independence movements. The MFDC had organised peaceful independence demonstrations. In 1982 the organisation’s leaders were arrested, sparking a vicious circle of increased resistance and Army clampdowns.

In 1990, the MFDC began reprisals by attacking military buildings in the region, with covert support from the Guinea-Bissauan Army. The Senegalese Army in turn attacked MFDC bases in Basse Casamance and Guinea-Bissau, but both sides were also accused of attacking non-combatants.

Several ceasefires were agreed during the 1990s, but none lasted, and the conflict hit European headlines when four French tourists disappeared, both sides blaming each other. Father Diamacoune Senghor had come to lead the MFDC and pursued a policy of talks and reconciliation. However, the Senegalese government refused to consider independence for the region, leading some MFDC members to split and restart the fighting.

Another ceasefire was signed in 1997, but about 500 people were reported dead in battles up until March 2001, when Senghor agreed a peace deal. This allowed for the release of prisoners, the return of refugees and clearance of landmines but did not bring autonomy. Some in the MFDC regarded this as a betrayal, and the movement split with two factions battling each other.

Since the split, low-level fighting has continued in the region. Another round of negotations took place in 2005.

Quote from UUCD: "In 1947, the Mouvement des forces démocratiques de Casamançe (MFDC) was created as a political party. It mainly aimed to represent regional interests, and was soon absorbed into the leadership of national political parties. Throughout the region, it was believed that in exchange for this co-option, the President had promised to invest considerably in Casamançe. The failure of these investments to materialise, together with the above-mentioned historic claims of separateness and the perceived economic and political unfairness led to the revival of MFDC in the early 1980s."

Source: Wikipedia, published under the GNU FDL. Retrieved [dat]


Further reading:
Understanding The Casamance Conflict: A Background by Fall, Aïssatou, 2011.

SOURCES: FATALITY DATA

Data Sources

[1] Battle deaths: UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset v.5-2014 (link) (1989-) ID: #180
Low: 1,372 High: 1,610

[2] UCDP One-sided Violence Dataset v 1.4-2014 (1989-2013) (link) including actors: Government of Senegal, MFDC, MFDC - FN
Low: 284 High: 319

More about sources

NOTE ON NATION DATA

NOTE! Nation data for this war may be inconlusive or incomplete. In most cases it reflects which nations were involved with troops in this war, but in some it may instead reflect the contested territory.

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