a memorial for all wars: the Polynational War Memorial


Spanish Socialists vs Govt

Years: 1934-1934
Battle deaths: 1,335 [1]

Nation(s) involved and/or conflict territory [note]

Published prior to 2013 | Updated: 2014-03-24 01:35:43
The Second Spanish Republic (1931 – 1939) was the second period in Spanish history in which the election of both the positions of Head of State and Head of government were in the hands of the people. (The First Spanish Republic was from 1873 – 1874.)

The Second Republic began on 14 April 1931 after the abdication of King Alfonso XIII, following local and municipal elections in which republican candidates won the majority of votes in urban areas. The abdication led to a provisional government under Niceto Alcalá Zamora, and a constituent Cortes to draw up a new constitution, adopted on 9 December 1931. This led to a republican-socialist government under Manuel Azaña.

The first president was Niceto Alcalá Zamora (1931 – 1936). The Basques and the Catalans claimed independence but did not acutally immediately receive even the autonomy they wanted. The Straperlo scandal undermined the confidence in centrist republican parties and led to polarization.

New elections on 19 November 1933 led to a right-wing victory, nominally led by the centrist radical Alejandro Lerroux but dependent on the parliamentary support of the CEDA, a party led by José María Gil Robles with support ranging from Christian Democrats to fascists. The entry of three CEDA ministers into the government on 1 October 1934 led to armed rebellions by socialists and anarchists in Asturias and Catalonia on 6 October; Spanish nationalists later pointed at this as an indication that left-wing republicans only supported democracy when they won elections, thus justifying a similar approach from the right.

The establishment of a popular front by left-wing parties enabled the left to regain power at elections on 16 February 1936, installing Manuel Azaña as the second president (1936 – 1939).

The Republic suffered a terrible crisis when General Franco attempted a coup on 18 July 1936, which was the start of the Spanish Civil War. The Republic, militarily inferior to Franco’s forces and dependant upon the assistance of Communist and anarchist militias, began to fall out of favor with some nations but received aid from others, most notably Stalin’s USSR. Azaña’s government lasted until February 1939, though with control over a gradually reducing proportion of Spain. The Republic formally fell when General Franco and his troops took Madrid on April 1, 1939, with the assistance of Franco’s "fifth column".

A dictatorship (Franquismo) was established. During this period, Franco declared Spain to be a monarchy, but kept himself as head of state. Only 36 years later, on Franco’s death in 1975, did Spain revert to a royal head of state.


An excerpt from an article in the open online dictionary Wikipedia published under the GNU free licence: Read Article


Notes on fatalities

[1] Battle deaths: Correlates of War, Intra-State War Data v4.1

More about sources


NOTE! Nation data for this war may be inconlusive or incomplete. In most cases it reflects which nations were involved with troops in this war, but in some it may instead reflect the contested territory.



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