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Turkish War of Independence

Also called: Franco-Turkish War

Years: 1919-1921
Battle deaths: 40,000 [1]

Nation(s) involved and/or conflict territory [note]
France, Turkey

Published prior to 2013 | Updated: 2013-08-14 14:07:17
The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923.

1916: The Sykes-Picot Agreement between the United Kingdom and France is signed, dividing the Ottoman Empire between several states, both independent (e.g. Armenia and Kurdistan) and subject to such European nations as the UK, Italy, France, Imperial Russia and Greece. According to this treaty, a small territory around Ankara was all that was to be left for the Turks. This treaty is not recognized by the Ottoman state.

1919: Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti (Association for Defense of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia) is founded in Ankara by Mustafa Kemal, consisting of Young Turks and other nationalists. This event is followed by the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922).

April 23, 1920: The first meeting of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The monarchy and government of Sultan Mehmed VI is denounced and a temporary constitution is affirmed.

August 10, 1920: The Treaty of Sèvres is signed between the Allies and the Sultan. It is not recognized by Mustafa Kemal.

January 20, 1921: The first Turkish Constitution is approved by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, establishing the state of Turkey.

November 1, 1922: The sultanate is abolished.

November 17: Mehmed VI goes into exile.

July 24, 1923: The Treaty of Lausanne is signed, giving Turkey its current borders, except the province of Hatay.

October 29: Mustafa Kemal declares the Republic of Turkey and becomes the president of it.

March, 1924: The Caliphate is abolished, and the last Ottoman ruler, Caliph Abdul Mejid II, is deposed.

1939: The province of Hatay is ceded to Turkey by France.


Notes on fatalities

[1] Battle deaths: Correlates of War, Inter-State War Data v4.0

More about sources


NOTE! Nation data for this war may be inconlusive or incomplete. In most cases it reflects which nations were involved with troops in this war, but in some it may instead reflect the contested territory.



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